Lope de Rueda, Spain's 16th Century Comedian - The Pasos: translated and staged as living history
A translators choices:
 We have chosen to present these works within their original cultural context, since that is where we recreated them as performance material. Therefore:
All place names are presented as Spanish names, with Spanish spelling.
Names of characters are left in original Spanish
Attention-drawing exclamations at the beginning of speeches, which are simply a device to direct the audience’s attention to the speaker, and in most cases carry no necessary information, have been left in Spanish.  They include, but are not limited to:
Par diez! (a euphemism  for Por Dios which means My God)
Válame Dios! (God make me worthy)
Sí, señor! (Yes, sir.)
Sí, señora! (Yes, ma’am)
All references to a deity or a demon have been left in Spanish or translated literally, to retain the effect created by the review of these works by the Church prior to Juan de Timoneda’s  publication of them in 1567.
 We have endeavored to avoid in all cases the use of equivalencies with a particular modern or specifically English  or American cultural sound or connotation.   We do not  use, for instance, “okay”  or “yeah.”
 Vuestra Mercéd is a case all to itself.  This wonderful form of address that has devolved over the centuries to a the contraction usted, or to a mere abbreviation, Ud.  or Vd., is usually translated as “Your Grace.”   I find this jarring.  I feel the need to at least echo the sound of that original form of address, now reduced to the vestigial in the Spanish language itself.  Therefore, in all cases that venerated form will appear in my translations as a literal cognate: “YOUR MERCY.”
Fractured Latin phrases and bits of borderland dialect that probably would have been  less than intelligible to the average 16th Century Spanish audience, have been left intact untranslated.  We are sure that today's Latin language scholars will find them just as amusing as Latin scholars of the 16th Century did.
Joan Hansen
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